Raymond Gradus

After the Second World War it became clear that several European countries had failed to meet their defence tasks in the years before this war unfolded. In the Netherlands a broad consensus emerged that it was necessary to increase the level of defence spending. In the beginning of the fifties the share of defence in… » read more

Posted by Raymond Gradus

In many countries occupational plans are being reformed from Defined-Benefit (DB) to Defined-Contribution (DC) designs. In a Netspar discussion paper Lans Bovenberg and I explore the case of the Netherlands, which features a particularly high ratio of occupational pension assets to GDP. Most occupational schemes are DB-funded and the value of assets in these schemes… » read more

Posted by Raymond Gradus

In the 1980s and 1990s, disability benefit rates in the Netherlands were among the highest in the world. In 2002 the number of disability benefit recipients approached the political sensitive level of one million, 800,000 of which in the employees’ scheme. When the inflow rates at that time would have been continued into the future,… » read more

Posted by Raymond Gradus

A single European labour market will have positive economic effects and create new jobs. In this respect, the Single Market Act as proposed by commissioner Barnier is an important step towards an competitive social market economy. Also in this context, a new trade agreement between EU and USA will be important as well. In this… » read more

Posted by Raymond Gradus

In his last NYT column Paul Krugman discussed the current Dutch debate on austerity. According to estimates in February additional cuts of 4 billion euro (0.7% GDP) are necessary to reach the Maastricht criteria of 3% in 2014. He stated that these new deficit cuts are unnecessary and will hurt the Dutch economy furthermore. He… » read more

Posted by Raymond Gradus

One of the promises of privatisation was that it reduces the costs of public delivery. Governments may have various reasons to contract out their service deliveries to the private sector. Private contractors possess advantages over public organisations as they have a stronger focus on results because of the competition among suppliers, the necessity to earn… » read more

Posted by Raymond Gradus

In the Netherlands, a committee led by NIBC-CFO van Dijkhuizen (CvD) advises to take an integrated approach to reform the tax system. It proposes a more flatter rate of income tax and, thereby, a better functioning labour market. Moreover, it reduces mortgage interest deduction and thereby decreasing the vulnerability of the economy to rising interest… » read more

Posted by Raymond Gradus